# Which of the following laws of Physics is directly applied in the working of hydraulic brakes used in automobiles?

Options :
1. Archimedes' Principle
2. Torricelli's law
3. Bernoulli's theorem
4. Pascal's law

Explanation:

Pascal's principle, also called Pascal's law, in fluid (gas or liquid) mechanics, states that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container. The principle was first enunciated by the French scientist Blaise Pascal. Pressure is equal to the force divided by the area on which it acts. According to Pascal's principle, in a hydraulic system a pressure exerted on a piston produces an equal increase in pressure on another piston in the system. If the second piston has an area 10 times that of the first, the force on the second piston is 10 times greater, though the pressure is the same as that on the first piston. This effect is exemplified by the hydraulic press, based on Pascal's principle, which is used in such applications as hydraulic brakes. A hydraulic brake circuit has fluid-filled master and slave cylinders connected by pipes. When the driver of a vehicle pushes the brake pedal it depresses a piston in the master cylinder, forcing fluid along the pipe. The fluid travels to slave cylinders at each wheel of the vehicle and fills them, forcing pistons out to apply the brakes. Fluid pressure distributes itself evenly around the system. The combined surface 'pushing' area of all the slave pistons is much greater than that of the piston in the master cylinder. Consequently, the master piston has to travel several inches to move the slave pistons the fraction of an inch it takes to apply the brakes.

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