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The Sumerians were the first Mesopotamian civilization. Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium B.C.), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium B.C., a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians (who spoke a language isolate) and the Semitic Akkadian speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The Sumerians lived in independent walled city-states. Uruk, the first and one of the largest cities in Mesopotamia, had a six miles long wall with defense towers located at 30-35 foot intervals. Although there was not much stone or wood in the area, Sumerians learned to build with clay bricks made from the mud and this was the primary building material.