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Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Typhoid is a common worldwide bacterial disease transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the faeces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica enterica, serovarTyphi. Tuberculosis is a common, and in many cases fatal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Measles is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.