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ELISA is an abbreviation for Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. An ELISA test uses components of the immune system and chemicals to detect immune responses in the body (for example, to infectious microbes). The fatal disease AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by a virus called HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Tests most commonly used to diagnose HIV infection are those that detect HIV antibodies. Two of the best-known HIV antibody tests are the ELISA and the Western Blot tests.