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Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, that causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscle and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. Its deficiency in the human body can cause the disease, 'diabetes mellitus'. Insulin was primarily discovered by Dr. Frederick Grant Banting, a Canadian medical scientist and doctor, along with three other co-inventors in 1922 at the University of Toronto. Banting and his co-inventor J. J. R. Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1923 for the discovery of Insulin.